Landmark International Agreements
The agreement reached by the ICAO Assembly in Montreal provides for the implementation of a Global Market Base Measure (GMBM) that will require airlines to offset the growth in their CO2 emissions after 2020. To this end, airlines purchase “emission units” resulting from CO2 emission reduction projects in other economic sectors (e.g. B renewable energies). In the first phase (2021-2026), 65 countries will participate on a voluntary basis. All EU Member States will join from the outset. Among the participating countries are 18 of the 20 most important states of international civil aviation. In the second phase (2027-2035), participation is mandatory; with the exception of exempted countries (countries with small aviation activities). This means that between 2021 and 2035, about 80% of emissions above the 2020 level will be offset by the system. – This could be the first international agreement (with the exception of initiatives within the EU) on ec-related issues, and certainly the most important development of several states since the EU Action Plan; – Finally, its existence implicitly, if not explicitly, recognizes that international nations and enterprises must cooperate within the EC in order to ensure their harmonization in existing global trade and commerce practices. However, it remains to be seen to what extent countries are prepared to give up their independence in order to achieve tangible results from the EC. This thirst for close cooperation may well come from the business community, which wants to maintain international supply chains and distribution channels that allow products to be marketed across continents, taking into account local recycling standards.
The NPT is a pioneering international treaty whose objective is to prevent nuclear proliferation and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to promote the goal of nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. The treaty is the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty aimed at disarming the nuclear-weapon States. The treaty was signed in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. On 11 May 1995, the contract was extended for an indefinite period. A total of 191 States have acceded to the treaty, including the five nuclear-weapon States. More countries have ratified the Non-Proliferation Treaty than any other arms control and disarmament agreement, demonstrating the importance of the treaty. Violeta Bulc, European Commissioner for Transport, said: “This unprecedented agreement opens a new chapter in international aviation, where sustainability is finally part of the way we fly. Europe has continued to work towards comprehensive and coordinated action to address the increase in aviation emissions, which would otherwise be expected to reach 300% by 2050. . .